Wednesday, March 31, 2004


(Bos gaurus), one of several species of wild cattle, family Bovidae (order Artiodactyla). The gaur lives in small herds in the mountain forests of India, Southeast Asia, and the Malay Peninsula. Larger than any other wild cattle, it attains a shoulder height of 1.8 m (6 feet) or more. It is heavy-bodied and typically blue-eyed and has curving horns, a high ridge on the forepart

Tuesday, March 30, 2004

Austin, Stephen

Raised on the Missouri frontier, Austin was educated at Transylvania University in Lexington, Ky., and served in the Missouri territorial legislature (1814–19). The economic panic of 1819 led his father, Moses Austin

Monday, March 29, 2004

United Arab Emirates

The economy of the United Arab Emirates (UAE) continued its robust expansion in 1997. Gross domestic product (GDP) grew about 10% in 1996, the highest rate in the Middle East, and in 1997 it rose a substantial 4.4%. Significantly,

Sunday, March 28, 2004

Abu Ali Mustafa

Palestinian nationalist (b. 1938, Arabeh, Palestine—d. Aug. 27, 2001, Ram Allah, West Bank), was a cofounder and, from July 2000, secretary-general of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), a radical faction of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). He was born Mustafa az-Zibri and later took the nom de guerre Abu Ali Mustafa. As a young man he joined George Habash's Arab National

Saturday, March 27, 2004


(from Greek hyle, “matter”; zoe, “life”), in philosophy, any system that views all matter as alive, either in itself or by participation in the operation of a world soul or some similar principle. Hylozoism is logically distinct both from early forms of animism, which personify nature, and from panpsychism, which attributes some form of consciousness or sensation to all

Friday, March 26, 2004

Lipps, Theodor

At the University of Bonn (1877–90) Lipps wrote a comprehensive account of psychology of the time, Grundtatsachen des

Thursday, March 25, 2004


Town, regional municipality of Halton, southeastern Ontario, Canada, 20 miles (32 km) southwest of Toronto. Oakville is situated on Lake Ontario at the mouth of Oakville Creek. It was founded in 1830 by Colonel William K. Chisholm, who established shipbuilding yards there. It was originally incorporated in 1857, and in 1962 it amalgamated with Trafalgar Township to form the new town of Oakville,

Wednesday, March 24, 2004

Quimper Faience

Tin-enamelled earthenware produced by a factory at Loc Maria, a suburb of Quimper in Brittany, Fr. The factory was founded in 1690 by Jean-Baptiste Bosquet, a potter from Marseille who had settled there. Both Pierre Caussy, who took over in 1743, and de la Hubeaudière, who bought it in 1809, expanded production. Quimper ware never developed a truly distinct style of its own, however, but

Tuesday, March 23, 2004

Plummer, Christopher

Plummer made his first professional appearance in 1950 in Ottawa and spent several years performing with Canadian repertory theatre groups. In 1954 he made his New York City debut and soon attracted wide critical praise.


City, Chelyabinsk oblast (province), west-central Russia, in the southern Urals. It is a centre of coal mining in the Chelyabinsk lignite (brown coal) basin; mining began in 1934, and the settlement became a city in 1942. Excavator and truck production reflect its mining orientation; other industries are ferroconcrete and building-materials manufacture. Pop. (1991 est.) 44,800.

Sunday, March 21, 2004

Marsh Fly

Any of several hundred insect species of the family Sciomyzidae (order Diptera), notable because the larval phase preys parasitically on slugs, snails, and other mollusks. These medium-sized flies occur worldwide; about 500 species are known, each associated with certain types of host, usually found in marshy habitats. Eggs are commonly laid on the host animal. After the

Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke Of, Earl Of Surrey, Earl Marshal

Son of the 1st Duke of Norfolk, Thomas Howard early shared his father's fortunes; he fought at Barnet for Edward IV and was made steward of the royal household and created Earl of Surrey in 1483 (at the same time that his father was created duke). Taken prisoner at Bosworth Field

Friday, March 19, 2004

Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke Of, Earl Of Surrey, Earl Marshal

In analytical chemistry, a technique for identifying and quantitatively analyzing the chemical composition of substances by observing the thermal behaviour of a sample as it is heated. The technique is based on the fact that as a substance is heated, it undergoes reactions and phase changes that involve absorption or emission of heat. In DTA the temperature of

Sabbath River

In Jewish legend, a river beyond which the Ten Lost Tribes of Israel were exiled. See Sambation.

Wednesday, March 17, 2004

Crab Nebula

(catalog numbers NGC 1952 and M1), probably the most intensely studied bright nebula, in the constellation Taurus, about 5,000 light-years from Earth. Roughly 5 to 10 light-years in diameter, it is assumed to be the remnant of a supernova (violently exploding star) observed by Chinese and other astronomers first on July 4, 1054. The supernova was visible in daylight for 23 days and at night for almost

Tuesday, March 16, 2004

Eisenstaedt, Alfred

Eisenstaedt served in the German army in World War I from 1916 to 1918, sustaining injuries in both legs. He became an enthusiastic

Monday, March 15, 2004

North Ossetia

North Ossetia is mountainous, with the Glavny (Main) Range reaching 15,682 feet (4,780 m) at Mount Dzhimara and other peaks in the republic reaching more than 14,000 feet (4,250 m). Parallel to the Glavny crest range is a series

Sunday, March 14, 2004

Metamorphic Rock, Amphibolite facies

The amphibolite facies is the common high-grade facies of regional metamorphism, and, like the greenschist facies, such rocks are present in all ages from all over the world. Their characteristic feature is the development of the most common amphibole, hornblende, in the presence of a plagioclase feldspar and garnet. The rocks are normally highly foliated or schistose.

Friday, March 12, 2004

Computers, Ubiquitous computing

The Internet also has inspired new ways of programming. Programmers are developing software to divide computational tasks into subtasks that a program would assign to separate processors in order to achieve greater efficiency and speed. This trend is one of various ways that computers are being connected to share information and to solve complex problems.

Aksyonov, Vasily Pavlovich

The son of parents who spent many years in Soviet prisons, Aksyonov was raised in a state home and graduated from medical school in 1956. After working a few years as a doctor, he turned to writing, and in

Thursday, March 11, 2004

Arts, Central Asian, Emirate of Bukhara

Although fine-quality pottery decorated with animal, bird, and figural designs was being made in New Nisa in the 15th century, the artistic revival of the Mongol period that Timur had launched in western Turkistan had died out by the 16th century, when the emirate of Bukhara, incorporating much of Sogdiana, was established. Except for gold-thread embroidery and carpet

Kodály, Zoltán

Prominent composer and authority on Hungarian folk music. He was also important as an educator not only of composers but also of teachers and, through his students, contributed heavily to the spread of musical education in Hungary. He was a chorister in his youth at Nagyszombat (now Trnava), Czech., where he wrote his first compositions.

Tuesday, March 09, 2004


Any visible sign or device used by a business enterprise to identify its goods and distinguish them from those made or carried by others. Trademarks may be words or groups of words, letters, numerals, devices, names, the shape or other presentation of products or their packages, colour combinations with signs, combinations of colours, and combinations of any of the

Monday, March 08, 2004

Biblical Literature, The Story of Ahikar

According to the book of Tobit, Ahikar, the cupbearer of the Assyrian king Esarhaddon, was Tobit's nephew; he is a secondary personage in the plot, and his own story is mentioned. Ahikar is the hero of a Near Eastern non-Jewish work, The Story of Ahikar. The book exists in medieval translations, the best of them in Syriac. The story was known in the Persian period in the Jewish

Sunday, March 07, 2004


Also spelled  Karajá,   tribe of South American Indians living along the Araguaia River, near the inland island of Bananal, in central Brazil. Their language may be distantly related to Ge, which is spoken by most of the surrounding tribes. The three subtribes of the Carajá—the Carajá proper, the Shambioá, and the Javahé—have almost identical cultures and are all oriented toward the river

Saturday, March 06, 2004


(Japanese: “tough gang”), any of various Japanese criminal gangs of centuries-long tradition, which combined in the 20th century into Mafia-like organizations. Members, often called yakuza (“good-for-nothing”), or gyangu (“gangster”), adopt samurai-like rituals and often bear elaborate body tattoos. They engage in extortion, blackmail, smuggling, prostitution, drugs, gambling,

Friday, March 05, 2004


One of the basic functions of a dowry has been to serve as a form of protection for the wife against ill treatment by her husband. A dowry used in this way was actually a conditional gift to the husband that would be


City, seat (1834) of Huntington county, central Indiana, U.S., on the Little Wabash River near its juncture with the Wabash, 24 miles (39 km) southwest of Fort Wayne. The original site (Forks of the Wabash) was an Indian campground (home of the Miami chief La Fontaine), where many Indian treaties were signed; it was known as Wepecheange (“Place of Flints”). The settlement that developed there

Wednesday, March 03, 2004

La Baule-escoublac

Also called  La Baule,   fashionable resort, Loire-Atlantique département, Bretagne région, France. It lies along the Atlantic coast near the mouth of the Loire River, west of Saint-Nazaire. Facing south and protected from the north wind by 1,000 acres (400 hectares) of dune-stabilizing maritime pines, it is on a crescent-shaped bay in the centre of a fine sand beach 5 miles (8 km) long. Headlands at each end of

Tuesday, March 02, 2004


Since ancient times, soapstones

Monday, March 01, 2004

Faroese Language

Also spelled  Faeroese , Faroese  Føroysk  language spoken in the Faroe Islands by some 44,000 inhabitants. Faroese belongs to the West Scandinavian group of the North Germanic languages. It preserves more characteristics of Old Norse than any other language except modern Icelandic, to which it is closely related, but with which it is mutually unintelligible. The written language was established by the Faroese

Macaulay (of Rothley), Thomas Babington Macaulay, Baron

English Whig politician, essayist, poet, and historian best known for his History of England, 5 vol. (1849–61); this work, which covers the period 1688–1702, secured his place as one of the founders of what has been called the Whig interpretation of history. He was raised to the peerage in 1857.