Saturday, July 31, 2004

Black Hand

Byname of  Ujedinjenje Ili Smrt  (Serbo-Croatian: Union or Death), secret Serbian society of the early 20th century that used terrorist methods to promote the liberation of Serbs outside Serbia from Habsburg or Ottoman rule and was instrumental in planning the assassination of the Austrian archduke Francis Ferdinand (1914), precipitating the outbreak of World War I. The society was formed (1911) and led by Col.

Wednesday, July 28, 2004

Hafiz Ibrahim, Muhammad

Hafiz was a lawyer and later a lieutenant in the Egyptian army, from which he retired in 1901. During the next 10 years he wrote his well-known odes denouncing imperialism and wrote his nationalistic poems. His superb skill as a reciter of poetry won him a prominent place in society, and he became director of literature

Monday, July 26, 2004

Furniture, Modern

Modern furniture design after World

Saturday, July 24, 2004

Schaffner, Jakob

Schaffner was orphaned at an early age. He described his life in four autobiographical

Friday, July 23, 2004

Pack Ice

Floating mass of ice formed from seawater in the Earth's polar regions. Pack ice expands during winter to cover about 5 percent of the northern oceans and 8 percent of the southern oceans. When melting occurs in spring and summer, the margins of the pack ice retreat.

Tuesday, July 20, 2004

Davidson (of Lambeth), Randall Thomas Davidson, Baron

Ordained in 1875, Davidson became resident chaplain two years later to the archbishop of Canterbury, Archibald C. Tait. He soon won the trust of Queen Victoria, whose influence

Monday, July 19, 2004


Iron sulfide mineral (Fe1–xS) in the niccolite group; in it, the ratio of iron to sulfur atoms is variable but is usually slightly less than one. It commonly is found with pentlandite and other sulfides in silica-poor igneous rocks, as at Kongsberg, Nor.; Andreas-Berg, Ger.; Trentino, Italy; and Sudbury, Ont. The variety troilite, with a composition near that of iron sulfide (FeS), is

Saturday, July 17, 2004

Bükk Mountains

A southward-projecting spur of the Carpathian Mountains, in northeastern Hungary. It comprises a forested highland area extending some 30 miles (50 km) from the Tarna River on the west to the Sajó River in the east and 20 miles (32 km) from north to south. Maximum elevation is reached at Mount Istállósko (3,146 feet [959 m]). The central core of the Bükk is a 12.5-by-4.5-mile (20-by-7-kilometre) limestone plateau

Thursday, July 15, 2004

Kenai Fjords National Park

The park includes the 300-square-mile (777-square-km) Harding Icefield and its outflowing glaciers and numerous coastal fjords and islands, which are remnants

Tuesday, July 13, 2004

Pas D'élévation

(French: “high steps”), all jumping and leaping movements in classical ballet. The steps are admired for the height at which they are performed and for the dancer's ability to ascend without apparent effort and to land smoothly. Dancers famed for aerial maneuvers of this kind include Jean Balon, a French dancer of the late 17th century, and Vaslav Nijinsky, reportedly an early

Sunday, July 11, 2004

Klos, Elmar

Czech filmmaker (b. Jan. 26, 1910, Brno, Moravia, Austria-Hungary--d. July 19, 1993, Prague, Czech Republic), collaborated with the Hungarian-born director Jan Kadar on some of the finest motion pictures in the so-called Czech New Wave, most notably The Shop on Main Street, which won the Academy Award for the best foreign film of 1965. Klos studied law at Charles University in Prague and began doing

Friday, July 09, 2004

Polio Vaccine

Preparation of poliomyelitis virus given to prevent infection with the disease. The virus is grown in kidney tissue from rhesus monkeys. There are two types of vaccine: one with killed virus, which is injected, and the other with live, attenuated (weakened) virus, which is given orally. Vaccines, whether killed or live, must contain strains of all of the three poliovirus

Tuesday, July 06, 2004

Aerospace Industry, Lean manufacturing

Consistent with improving the economics of aerospace vehicles is the transition to a new paradigm for the entire industry, from concept development to operations. This approach involves all processes pertaining to the acquisition, design, development, and manufacturing of a product or system and has been variously called “lean,” “agile,” or “synchronous” manufacturing.

Monday, July 05, 2004


In architecture and decorative arts, a stylized ornamental motif based on a characteristic Mediterranean plant with jagged leaves, Acanthus spinosus (for illustration, see order). It was first used by the Greeks in the 5th century BC on temple roof ornaments, on wall friezes, and on the capital of the Corinthian column. One of the best examples of its use in the Corinthian