Tuesday, March 29, 2005

Standard Oil Company And Trust

The company's origins date to 1863, when Rockefeller joined Maurice B. Clark and Samuel Andrews in a Cleveland refining business; in 1865 Rockefeller bought

Monday, March 28, 2005

Vaal River

Northern tributary of the Orange River, South Africa. Rising at Sterkfontein Beacon near Breyten, in Mpumalanga province, it flows 750 miles (1,210 km) southwest to its confluence with the Orange near Douglas; the Vaal's middle section forms most of the Free State's northern provincial boundary. It is basically a plateau river and occupies a shallow bed. Most of the year its flow

Friday, March 25, 2005

Fu-ch'un River

The westerly

Wednesday, March 23, 2005


Town (township), Chittenden county, northwestern Vermont, U.S., on the Winooski River just east of Burlington. Chartered in 1763 and settled in 1783, it consists of the villages of Essex Junction and Essex Center. Essex Junction is a busy industrial and residential site where the Central Vermont Railroad and several highways converge; its railway depot serves as the depot for

Monday, March 21, 2005

Zach, Franz Xaver, Freiherr Von

Zach built an observatory on the Seeberg near Gotha and directed the observatory—one of the most important of the time—from 1791, when it was completed, until 1806. During this period Zach enlisted 24 astronomers throughout Europe in making a systematic

Saturday, March 19, 2005

Egypt, Ancient, Predynastic Egypt

The peoples of predynastic Egypt were the successors of the Paleolithic inhabitants of northeastern Africa, who had spread over much of its area; during wet phases they had left remains in regions as inhospitable as the Great Sand Sea. The final desiccation of the Sahara was not complete until the end of the 3rd millennium BC; over thousands of years people must have

Thursday, March 17, 2005

Bilandic, Michael Anthony

American politician and judge (b. Feb. 13, 1923, Chicago, Ill.—d. Jan. 15, 2002, Chicago), succeeded Richard J. Daley as mayor of Chicago and later served as chief justice of the Illinois Supreme Court. Bilandic had been a corporate lawyer for 28 years and was serving as chairman of Chicago's City Council finance committee by the time Mayor Daley died in his sixth term in office in December 1976. The City


Vishnu was not a major deity

Wednesday, March 16, 2005

Offset Printing

Also called  offset lithography , or  litho-offset  in commercial printing, widely used printing technique in which the inked image on a printing plate is printed on a rubber cylinder and then transferred (i.e., offset) to paper or other material. The rubber cylinder gives great flexibility, permitting printing on wood, cloth, metal, leather, and rough paper. An American printer, Ira W. Rubel, of Nutley, N.J., accidentally discovered


The sect reached its peak in the late 10th or 11th century, when the passionate devotional hymns of the Alvars (a group of mystics) were introduced into

Sunday, March 13, 2005

Blood Disease

Abnormal condition that involves the corpuscular elements of the blood—red cells, white cells, and platelets—and the tissues in which they are formed—the bone marrow, the lymph nodes, the spleen (i.e., the hematopoietic system). This definition, however, needs expansion and modification. In certain types of illness (e.g., pneumonia, appendicitis) the number of leukocytes


When the art of printing from movable metal type was perfected midway through the 15th century, letter cutters attempted to make their letter forms

Saturday, March 12, 2005

Ahram, Al-

It was founded in 1875 by two Lebanese-Christian brothers, Salim and Bishara Takla. As a daily from 1881, the paper became famous for its independence and objectivity, despite British censorship and control, and for its coverage of international

Friday, March 11, 2005


City, Bavaria Land (state), extreme southern Germany. It lies along the Lech River, at the east foot of the Allgäu Alps, near the Austrian border. The site of a Roman frontier station, the city developed around the Benedictine abbey of St. Magnus (founded 628) and was chartered about 1294. A treaty concluded there in 1745 led to the withdrawal of Bavaria from the War of the Austrian Succession.

Thursday, March 10, 2005


9 species.

China, East Turkistan

To the west of Kashgaria in East Turkistan, a khanate of Khokand emerged in Ferghana after 1760 as a powerful caravan trade centre. When Muslim rebellion spread rapidly from Shensi and Kansu to East Turkistan, a Khokandian adventurer, Yakub Beg, seized the opportunity to invade Kashgaria and established power there in 1865; he soon showed signs of advancing to the Ili region

Monday, March 07, 2005


Confederacy of at least 30 Algonkian-speaking North American Indian tribes that once occupied most of what is now tidewater Virginia, the eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay, and possibly southern Maryland. The confederacy had been formed by and named for a powerful chief, Powhatan, shortly before the colonial settlement of Jamestown in 1607. The tribes of the confederacy

Molcho, Solomon

The son of Marrano parents (Portuguese or Spanish Jews forced to become Christians), Pires attained the position of royal secretary in a Portuguese high court of justice. When an Arabian adventurer, David Reubeni, arrived in Portugal, Pires became possessed by mystic

Saturday, March 05, 2005

Earnhardt, Dale

Ralph Earnhardt, Dale's father, raced stock cars in the American southeast during the 1960s and helped to foster his son's passion for the sport. The younger Earnhardt dropped

Friday, March 04, 2005

Arsenate Mineral

Any of a group of naturally occurring compounds of arsenic, oxygen, and various metals, most of which are rare, having crystallized under very restricted conditions. At the mineralogically famous Långban iron and manganese mines in central Sweden, more than 50 species of arsenate minerals have been described, many peculiar to the locality. Such compounds occur in

Thursday, March 03, 2005


Also spelled  Cylix,   in ancient Greek pottery, wide-bowled drinking cup with horizontal handles, one of the most popular pottery forms from Mycenaean times through the classical Athenian period. There was usually a painted frieze around the outer surface (see photograph), depicting a subject from mythology or everyday life, and on the bottom of the inside a painting often depicting

Wednesday, March 02, 2005

Nevado De Toluca National Park

Park in Mexico estado (“state”), central Mexico. It is situated in the municipality of Zinacantepec, on the Mexico–Toluca–Guadalajara highway west of Mexico City. Established in 1936, it has an area of 259 square miles (671 square km). The park lies in the Nevado de Toluca (or Zinantecatl) Mountains, which rise above 15,025 feet (4,580 m). Among the park's chief features are an extinct, snowcapped volcano

Tuesday, March 01, 2005


Region of East Malaysia, forming the northern part of the great island of Borneo, and bordered by Sarawak (southwest) and Kalimantan, or Indonesian Borneo (south). Sabah has an 800–900-mile- (1,290–1,450-kilometre-) long, heavily indented coastline that is washed by the South China, Sulu, and Celebes seas. It was known as North Borneo during the British colonial period (until 1963). Its 28,425-square-mile (73,620-square-kilometre)